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Human-centered AI: from Artificial Intelligence (AI) to Intelligence Augmentation (IA)

Posted: March 9th, 2022 | Author: | Filed under: Artificial Intelligence, Human-centered Artificial Intelligence | Comments Off on Human-centered AI: from Artificial Intelligence (AI) to Intelligence Augmentation (IA)

The growth and evolvement of artificial intelligence has showcased the need that AI techniques should be “human-centered”, mainly with the increasing adoption of particularly inscrutable “opaque-box” machine learning (ML) models -such as neural networks models-, in which understanding has become increasingly difficult. For some people, this comprehension challenge will become the bottleneck to trust and adopt AI technologies. Others have warned that a lack of human scrutiny will inevitably lead to failures in usability, reliability, safety, fairness, and other moral crises of AI.

However, what is human-centered artificial intelligence? 

HCAI concerns the study of how present and future AI systems will interact with human lives in a mixed society composed of artificial and human agents, and how to keep the human into the focus in this mixed society. The discussion involves both technical and non technical people which see AI agents from different perspectives. HCAI technologies bring superhuman capabilities, augmenting human creativity, while raising human performance and self-efficacy. A human-centered approach will reduce the out-of-control technologies, calm fears of robot-led unemployment, and give users the rewarding sense of mastery and accomplishment. It will as well bring AI wider acceptance and higher impact by providing products and services that serve human needs. 

In the past, researchers and developers focused on building AI algorithms and systems, stressing machine autonomy and measuring algorithm performance. The new synthesis gives equal attention to human users and other stakeholders by raising the value of user experience design and by measuring human performance. This new synthesis reflects the growing movement to expand from technology-centered thinking to include human-centered aspirations that highlight societal benefit. The interest in HCAI has grown stronger since the 2017 Montreal Declaration for Responsible Development of AI.

What is the difference between HCAI and AI?

From the standpoint of processes, HCAI builds on user experience design methods of user observation, stakeholder engagement, usability testing, iterative refinement, and continuing evaluation of human performance in use of systems that employ AI.

From the product approach, HCAI systems are designed to be super-tools which amplify, augment, empower, and enhance human performance. They emphasize human control, while embedding high levels of automation. 

The goal is to increase human self-efficacy, creativity, responsibility, and social connections while reducing the impact of malicious actors, biased data, and flawed software.

In an automation-enhanced world, clear interfaces could let humans control automation to make the most of people initiative, creativity, and responsibility. For instance, if AI technology developers increase their use of information visualization, their own algorithmic world will improve and they will help many stakeholders to better understand how to use these new technologies. Information visualization has proven its value in understanding deep learning methods, improving algorithms, and reducing errors. Visual user interfaces have become appreciated for providing developers, users, and other stakeholders with a better understanding of and more control over how algorithmic decisions are made for parole requests, hiring, mortgages, and other consequential applications.

Automation is invoked by humans, but they must be able to anticipate what happens because they are responsible. While AI projects are often focussed on replacing humans, HCAI designers favor developing information-rich visualizations and explanations built-in, rather than added on. These information abundant displays give users a clear understanding of what is happening and what they can do.

The future is human-centered. The goal is to create products and services that amplify, augment, empower, and enhance human performance. HCAI systems emphasize human control, while embedding high levels of automation, easing thus the transition from artificial intelligence (AI) to intelligence augmentation (IA).